Former chief minister of Sarawak, Tun Abdul Rahman Ya'kub was one of the first who proposed the idea of Malaysia setting up an oil company in In fact, since the formation of Malaysia in , the issue of territorial waters of Sabah and Sarawak has not been fully addressed, thus leaving its interpretation wide open. The Sarawak government has declared that the territorial waters extends well beyond the three mile limit defined by the Malaysian federal government.
Therefore, Rahman decided to keep the conflict as low profile as possible. Rahman's nephew, Abdul Taib Mahmud assumed the role of federal land and mines minister after Rahman became the chief minister of Sarawak. Taib believed in the sharing of oil royalties between the state and the federal government. During the time, the oil mining activities in Sarawak were still under exclusive control of Shell. Taib Mahmud initially suggested to allow independent contractors to market government oil. A government hydrocarbon committee was later set up.
Taib Mahmud visited Indonesia and had a discussion with Pertamina Indonesian state owned oil and gas company. Taib suggested that Malaysia to scrap the concession system and replace it with production sharing agreement. However, there was no laws that allow Malaysia to take back the concessions without paying compensations to foreign oil companies. However, Rahman Ya'kub protested his nephew decision and threatened the federal government to court if Sarawak were to left out of this oil deal. Tengku Razaleigh suggested the formation of a company instead of a statutory body where the former would distributes profits equally between the federal and the state governments.
Rahman agreed with the suggestion. Tengku Razaleigh drafted the Petroleum Development Act together with his associates in secret, as instructed by Tun Razak, and to be completed before the Malaysian general election. Rahman Ya'kub then telephoned Tengku Razaleigh to ask about the terms offered by the Malaysian federal government.
Tengku Razaleigh then told Rahman regarding abolishment of the concession system. Rahman agreed with the deal. In , the Petroleum Development Act was tabled in parliament and approved. Tengku Razaleigh refused to bulge in. Oil exploration was by no means at an end and could yet produce more reserves. The Seligi field, which came onstream at the end of and was developed by Esso Production Malaysia, was one of the richest oilfields so far found in Malaysia waters, and further concessions to the majors would encourage exploration of the deeper waters around Malaysia, where unknown reserves could be discovered.
Meanwhile, computerised seismography made it both feasible and commercially justifiable to re-explore fields which had been abandoned, or were assumed to be unproductive, over the past century. Another way to postpone depletion was to develop sources of oil, and of its substitute, natural gas, outside Malaysia. In May , the governments of Malaysia and Thailand settled a long-running dispute over their respective rights to an area of 7, square kilometres in the Gulf of Thailand by setting up a joint administrative authority for the area and encouraging a joint oil exploration project by PETRONAS, the Petroleum Authority of Thailand , and the US company Triton Oil.
In a separate deal, in October , the Petroleum Authority of Thailand arranged with PETRONAS to study the feasibility of transferring natural gas from this jointly administered area, through Malaysia to Thailand, by way of an extension of the pipelines laid for the third stage of the Peninsular Gas Utilisation Project.
That project was on course to becoming a major element in the postponement of oil depletion. Contracts for line pipes for the second stage of the project were signed in with two consortia of Malaysian, Japanese, and Brazilian companies. This stage, completed in , included the laying of kilometres of pipeline through to the tip of the Peninsula, from where gas could be sold to Singapore and Thailand ; the conversion of two power stations— Port Dickson and Pasir Gudang —from oil to gas; and the expansion of PETRONAS' output of methyl tert-butyl ether MTBE , propylene , and polypropylene , which were already being produced in joint ventures with Idemitsu Petrochemical Co.
The third and final stage of the project was to lay pipelines along the northwest and northeast coastlines of the Peninsula and was completed in More to the point, a side effect of the refinery's completion was that PETRONAS was able to refine all of the crude oil it produced, instead of being partially dependent on refining facilities in Singapore. PETRONAS, with its policies of promoting self-reliance, helping to develop associated industries, and varying the sources and uses of oil and gas, played an important role in the Malaysian economy as a whole.
PETRONAS was not just another big oil company: it controlled a crucial sector of the economy and remained, for better or worse, an indispensable instrument of the state. During the mid- to late s, international exploration, development, and production remained key components in PETRONAS' strategy along with diversification. A key discovery was made in the Ruby field in Vietnam in That year, the firm also saw its first overseas production from the Dai Hung field in Vietnam and established its first retail station outside of Malaysia in Cambodia.
In addition, the company's polyethylene plant in Kerteh began operations. Between and , it purchased the former sub-Saharaian branch of Mobil Oil, rebranded as Engen Petroleum.
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While the Asian economy as a whole suffered from an economic crisis during and , Malaysia was quick to bounce back due to successful government reforms. The firm set plans in motion to build three petrochemical plants in Kuantan as well as an acetic facility in Kerteh. Its first LPG joint venture in China was launched that year and the company acquired a The company also signed a total of five new production sharing contracts PSCs in and , and began oil production in the Sirri field in Iran.
The company forged deals for two new exploration plots in Pakistan and began construction on the Chad-Cameroon Integrated Oil Development and Pipeline Project. The firm also made considerable progress in its petrochemicals strategy, opening new gas-based petrochemical facilities in Kerteh and Gebeng. The company realised, however, that it would have to continue its aggressive growth strategy to insure its survival in the years to come.
The company's international reserves stood at 6.
On 17 January , PETRONAS issued a statement that an onshore oil and gas discovery has been made in the state after drilling a test well about 20 kilometres away from the city of Miri in northern Sarawak. The well was found to have a net hydrocarbon thickness of meters. It had flow rates of barrels of crude oil per day and The find is the first onshore oil discovery in Malaysia in 24 years.
Both the company and the province blamed poor global LNG market conditions. The basic structure is geometric, embodying metaphoric and alpha glyphic nuances of an oil drop and a typography 'P', the latter being evident in the triangle assigned at the top right corner. The triangle is also an essential element to define directional movement and dynamic. The placement of a solid circle in the Logo is interpretive if the wheel of the oil and gas industry while outline of the drop simulates a driving system, the energy which to be derived from oil.
The corporate colour chosen for the logo is emerald green, an obvious reference to the sea from where oil and gas are drilled. Each alphabet is rendered with a rounded profile to assume fluidity and viscosity, while emphasising the oil based operation. The refreshed logo was part of a group-wide exercise to further strengthen the visual potential of Petronas' corporate icon by making it more contemporary while building on the existing equity and legacy of the Petronas brand.
In essence, the refreshed logo symbolises the growth and progression of the Petronas brand. Petronas was established during the oil and gas crisis in the early s. Over the years it has focused on building its business and operational capabilities and continues to seek more efficient and better methods of managing and adding value to Malaysia's oil and gas resources and meet increasing energy demands. This challenging spirit has propelled Petronas from being a manager of Malaysia's hydrocarbon resources to become a fully integrated oil and gas multinational.
The organisation was among the earliest national oil companies NOC to venture globally which has inspired many other NOCs to join the global oil and gas arena, changing the dynamics of today's oil and gas industry. Once you have determined the purpose, you will need to do some research on topics that you find intriguing. This structure serves as a foundation for your paper. However, this opportunity also gives you the advantage to choose a subject that is interesting or relevant to you. Use either an outline or a diagram to jot down your ideas and organize them.
To create a diagram, write your topic in the middle of your page. Draw three to five lines branching off from this topic and write down your main ideas at the ends of these lines. Draw more lines off these main ideas and include any thoughts you may have on these ideas. If you prefer to create an outline, write your topic at the top of the page.
From there, begin to list your main ideas, leaving space under each one.
The first part states the topic, and the second part states the point of the essay. In this space, make sure to list other smaller ideas that relate to each main idea. Now that you have chosen a topic and sorted your ideas into relevant categories, you must create a thesis statement. The body of your essay argues, explains or describes your topic.
Doing this will allow you to see connections and will help you to write a more organized essay. Your thesis statement tells the reader the point of your essay. Each main idea that you wrote in your diagram or outline will become a separate section within the body of your essay. Each body paragraph will have the same basic structure. Begin by writing one of your main ideas as the introductory sentence. Next, write each of your supporting ideas in sentence format, but leave three or four lines in between each point to come back and give detailed examples to back up your position.
Now that you have developed your thesis and the overall body of your essay, you must write an introduction. Fill in these spaces with relative information that will help link smaller ideas together. You can use shocking information, dialogue, a story, a quote, or a simple summary of your topic. The conclusion brings closure of the topic and sums up your overall ideas while providing a final perspective on your topic.
Whichever angle you choose, make sure that it ties in with your thesis statement, which will be included as the last sentence of your introduction. Your conclusion should consist of three to five strong sentences. After writing your conclusion, you might think that you have completed your essay. Before you consider this a finished work, you must pay attention to all the small details. Your strongest points should be the first and last paragraphs within the body, with the others falling in the middle. Simply review your main points and provide reinforcement of your thesis.
Also, make sure that your paragraph order makes sense. If your essay is describing a process, such as how to make a great chocolate cake, make sure that your paragraphs fall in the correct order. Review the instructions for your essay, if applicable. Many teachers and scholarship forms follow different formats, and you must double check instructions to ensure that your essay is in the desired format. Reread your paper and check to see if it makes sense.
Make sure that sentence flow is smooth and add phrases to help connect thoughts or ideas. Check your essay for grammar and spelling mistakes. The truth is, many holidays are becoming so commercialized that our proud traditions are in danger of becoming trivialized. Memorial Day has morphed from remembering our fallen soldiers to the unofficial beginning of summer.
Traditions represent a critical piece of our culture. They help form the structure and foundation of our families and our society. They remind us that we are part of a history that defines our past, shapes who we are today and who we are likely to become. As leaders, role models, and parents, we must strive to utilize every opportunity available to us to reinforce the values and beliefs that we hold dear.
The alternative to action is taking these values for granted. The result is that our beliefs will get so diluted, over time, that our way of life will become foreign to us. The values that support the backbone of our country, our family, and our faith will have drifted for so long that the fabric of our society will be torn. Discuss why a modern healthcare system should adopt a biopsychosocial rather than a biomedical approach The biomedical approach is the dominant model in medicine today and it has guided the thinking of most health practitioners for hundreds of years Taylor, The biomedical model only acknowledges a biological explanation for illness.
Biological explanations are very important but they form an incomplete picture of the causes of illness. The other causes of illness are acknowledged in the biopsychosocial model. The term was first used by Engel in in his critique of biomedicine published in Science Murray, As the name implies this model uses psychological and social explanations as well as biological ones to provide a full picture of health and illness. The biomedical model has dominated how health and illness have been viewed for the last century Whitman, The biomedical model is reductionist because it only defines illness in terms of biological processes and does not consider the psychological and social factors Taylor, cited in Whitman, Many books in health psychology use the analogy of a mechanic repairing a car.
He or she would diagnose a problem and then carry out repairs accordingly. The biomedical approach looks for the cause of a disorder rather than looking at a range of contributory factors. The biomedical model also does not acknowledge the interaction between the mind and the body. Another hallmark of the biomedical model is its emphasis on illness and its development rather than the promotion of health Banyard, There have been certain changes that have led to dissatisfaction with the biomedical model.
Firstly at the turn of the last century the diseases that were the main killers were single cause infections. In the three most common causes of death were influenza and pneumonia, tuberculosis and gastro-enteritis. Marketing Strategy Dissertation Proposal - Scribd Thousands of self-help titles are published every year with the promise of helping you lose weight, manage relationships, cope with stress, or solve personal problems.
Monster creative writing CCOT stands for "change and continuity over time. Apa research paper help I'm a photographer at heart and with all the sessions I've been getting in lucky to say I'm making a living off of it. In the privacy of my kitchen, I imagined myself a Picasso of ice cream, starting with a clean canvasbefore carefully adding colorful ingredients into the blender. Both essays answer the prompt "What Matters to you and Why? I had an artistic license to experiment and to throw my creativity at blank slates endlessly.
I even revel in the glory of the deceptively simple yet surprisingly delicious pistachio ice cream. I savor tangy orange-peach and deluxe mango-strawberry flavors. No, the flavor must be refined and dignified, majestically royal among typical bourgeois varieties. But I'm picky—no quotidian chocolate flavor will suffice. I value creativity in all my pursuits, not just those involving sugar.
When I read and write, words assemble themselves into playgrounds formy imagination. In chess and math, where strategies and theorems can be memorized, creativity is the edge necessary to develop original ideas. And when I play violin repertoire, the creative interpretations bring the notes to life. Creativity gives me the freedom to escape from a black-and-white world to one where I create the rules and let my imagination reign. Even though it seems too trivial at first to really matter, lasagna is highly profound in nature — what matters to me is what lasagna represents, not the dish itself.
But most importantly, creativity is the secret ingredient in my homemade ice cream. In many ways, Lasagna is the result of the interaction of cultures across generations. Though it is of Italian origin, its components are not.
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The main ingredient, the lasagna sheet, originates from flat noodles that Marco Polo brought from Ming China. Lasagna is an organized combination of different ideas and flavors. It matters so much to me because its many, diverse layers can be used asa metaphor for who I am. Like lasagna, my origins are difficult to ascertain. In the same way that diversity is an integral part oflasagna, it's an integral part of who I am. All kinds of diversity matter to me - being in a 'lasagna-like' environment, full of different, contrasting ideas matters to me because diversity is what makes me thrive.
Lasagna is significant to me for the same reasons as the United Nations. Both are highly varied, near-eclectic mixtures of ideas and cultures. Despite initial doubts over their success, both are highly successful today. They're both important to me because they show how different things from different places and ideas can work together cohesively.
From the dish to the open-face, Lasagna is always changing with the world around it, as cultures and ideas mix together. It shows how change can help inconstancy, and how it can be accommodated to create a more cohesive unit. So, like lasagna, let's all accommodate ideas and flavors, and bakethem together to create an amazing final product. The world could dowith a lot more hope, and most certainly with a lot more lasagna. I'm writing to you because the reception at Gawker's office said that you are the contact for Ms. I am writing in reference of this article: published on April 7, , regarding Stanford admissions essays.
I only noticed the article today when I was looking at the 'suggested reads' from Sam Biddle's vitriolic piece about Stanford. I'm one of the students whose essays you published - my essay, on Lasagna, was indeed an essay that got me into Stanford. I'd just like to ask if you could clarify that in the article that this was the case - both my essay and the other students' were actual submitted pieces that ultimately were a part of an accepted admissions application.
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Do let me know if you could do this an maybe attribute it to us. While I know that the writer of the blog post made fun of my writing, I believe that it's a good piece of writing, is on an enormously read internet site, and is written by me. Although change can be good and bad, any change is better than no change, it is an unpredictable aspect of life. Similarly, my related texts The Door and the unseen text have reinforced that any change is better than no change.
These texts have altered and informed my understanding of the concept towards changing perspectives. Changing perspectives is better than no change at all. Daisy has seen a different perspective of change to Glady and Sally. This change also allowed Sally to find her place in the world, she finally felt like she belonged somewhere. Glay also changes her perspectives, feeling that it is time to tell Sally the truth.
Daisy as well changes her perspective by telling Sally a bit about her life growing up. The change in perspectives hurt people like Daisy as she told her secrets, but it was better she told Sally, so Sally had a better understanding on why Daisy has a resentful perspective on the government. The text My Place has altered and helped me understand why people change their perspectives on the world. Furthermore my related text The Door by Miroslav Holub, has also assisted with my understanding of changing perspectives.
By opening the door we are able to change our perspectives, because we are opened up to a new environment with different situations. The door is also seen as a gateway of opportunity and change. The lack of rhythm, rhyme and uniform structure is to help create a more personal tone with the reader. The lack of rhythm allows the poet to make certain words stand out, like in the last stanza, it creates a dramatic effect.
My related text The Door has helped with my understanding of changing perspectives in general. My core text My Place and my related text The Door share the same ideas about changing perspective. The both suggest that change opens up more doors, Sally finding out about her culture and being able to open up a door to unknown opportunities.
They show how important the change in perspectives is within our lives. Recognizing One of the most pressing problems facing the world today and Virginia regarding the use of energy fueled the need to convene the commission to fulfill the Virginia Energy Plan that aimed to return the states greenhouse gas emissions to Cheating Cheating used to be considered an unmentionable sin. However, in this day and age, it has become more common and somewhat of a daily occurrence.
Cheating is more widespread today than in the past. According to the article titled Education: The New Morality, cheating has not been an issue of values, but simply one of practicality. This shows that many view cheating as a mere occurrence and something that can often be skipped over. The reason cheating has become such a pervasive movement is because many students tend to rationalize their cheating behavior. By reinforcing academic integrity, many students tend to weave personal integrity into their daily actions. The benefit of this type of settlement is the possibility for reform.
The last attempt I mentioned was a possible integration of computers into the everyday classroom. By including this, students are graded based on their work in front of a computer monitored, of course leaving less room for cheating to occur. There are many great ideas and ways to curb cheating, however, many times, they work best together. With this sort of involvement, there is a greater likelihood that cheating can be curbed.
Both ideas, issuing an honor code and possible punishments, are both successful ways to limit the amount of cheating. For example, by issuing an honor code involves student participation. On the other hand, those who were adamant about cheating in the first place may stick to their dishonest ways.
Do you see problems as an inevitable part of everyday life?